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Going Concern

Before conducting the hypothesis test, the study conducted a logistic regression model test. According to Astuti , an agency problem will appear when a conflict of interest occurs between principals and agent. In this case, principals include the shareholders, whereas agent is the management. The relationship between the shareholders and the management can lead to the asymmetry of information.

Going Concern

When management needs to use cash flow projections to make their evaluation, then the auditor certainly has to consider those projections and evaluate the underlying data. The auditor has to make sure the underlying data used in the projections is reliable and that management has the appropriate support for the assumptions they’re using in making the projections. Some special-purpose frameworks may address this evaluation of a reasonable period of time. For instance, the Financial Reporting Framework for SMEs also has the period defined as 12 months from the financial statement date, for example the balance sheet date. The revised CAS 570 is effective for audits of financial statements for periods ending on or after December 15, 2018. Effective for audits of financial statements for periods ending on or after December 14, 2010 except for subsequent amendments. Financial RatiosFinancial ratios are indications of a company’s financial performance.

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There are several forms of financial ratios that indicate the company’s results, financial risks, and operational efficiency, such as the liquidity ratio, asset turnover ratio, operating profitability ratios, business risk ratios, financial risk ratio, stability ratios, and so on. Details of the results of the key scenario modelling on the entity’s ability to meet its obligations over the forecast period. Most organisations are being impacted by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, either directly or indirectly, and the increased economic uncertainty and risk may have significant financial reporting implications. The going concern basis of accounting requires that the accounts are prepared using the assumption that the business will continue in operation for the foreseeable future and that there is neither the aim nor need to liquidate or limit significantly the nature of the operations. Before an auditor issues a going concern qualification, company leadership will be given an opportunity to create a plan to take corrective actions that can improve the outlook for the business. If the auditor determines the plan can be executed and mitigates concerns about the business, then a qualified opinion will not be issued. A financial auditor is hired by a business to evaluate whether its assessment of going concern is accurate.

The 2022 Payroll Update report provides insight on remote workforce tax issues, pandemic payroll issues and employer credits, and worker classification issues in the gig economy. Auditors understand that in this environment, it is inevitable that the degree of uncertainty is elevated from what it would be in other cases. Because of this, we need to look at those projections with a degree of judgment to assess whether management has done the best they can in making those projections or assessments, based on the information available to them today. If the fundamental accounting assumptions of Going Concern, Consistency and Accrual are followed, specific disclosure is not required.


If the auditor concludes that the entity’s disclosures with respect to the entity’s ability to continue as a Going Concern for a reasonable period of time are inadequate, a departure from generally accepted accounting principles exists. Reporting guidance for such situations is provided in section 508, Reports on Audited Financial Statements. The going concern principle allows the company to defer some of its prepaid expenses until future accounting periods. The going concern assumption is a fundamental assumption in the preparation of financial statements. Under the going concern assumption, an entity is ordinarily viewed as continuing in business for the foreseeable future with neither the intention nor the necessity of liquidation, ceasing trading or seeking protection from creditors pursuant to laws or regulations.

If you find discrepancies with your credit score or information from your credit report, please contact TransUnion® directly. If it appears the business will have to cease operations, the accountant might have to “write-down” the value of the business’s inventory or other assets, which reduces the overall value of the company.

Management Decisions about Going Concern Accounting

When an auditor issues a going concern qualification, the way their opinion is disclosed depends on the structure of the business. Existing or potential lawsuits, regulatory issues and other legal matters could result in financial burdens the business would need to overcome. We believe everyone should be able to make financial decisions with confidence. And while our site doesn’t feature every company or financial product available on the market, we’re proud that the guidance we offer, the information we provide and the tools we create are objective, independent, straightforward — and free. If there is an issue, the audit firm must qualify its audit report with a statement about the problem.

The going concern assumption is that a business will remain active for the foreseeable future. If the accountant believes that an entity may no longer be a going concern, then this brings up the issue of whether its assets are impaired, which may call for the write-down of their carrying amount to their liquidation value.


Profitability has fallen and EBITDA may be insufficient to fund operating expenses and financing obligations. Investors or other shareholders might ask for a business valuation to determine the true value of a business before making a final decision about how to act in light of the negative opinion. A qualified opinion might lead investors to avoid a company or even sell their shares in the company. Getting additional financing, if possible, or restructuring debt to avoid liquidating the company.

Why is going concern important?

The concept of going concern is crucial to shareholders because it demonstrates the stability of the entity. This assumption can affect the stock price of the business and their ability to raise capital or draw in more investors.

8455 , 1989 WL (S.D.N.Y. May 10, 1989)], the bankruptcy trustee of an entity that had acquired a deeply troubled shipping entity alleged that the entity’s auditors should have disclosed a serious doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. Had the auditors done so, the trustee alleged, the acquisition would never have gone forward. This going concern audit opinion is an audit opinion issued by the auditor if there is a doubt about the entity’s ability in maintaining the business sustainability. This variable was measured by applying a dummy variable where the going concern audit opinion was labeled code 1, whereas things which were not included into the going concern audit opinion were labeled code 0. Besides, the leverage measures how far the company’s assets are funded by debts .

If the auditor concludes there is substantial doubt, he should consider the adequacy of disclosure about the entity’s possible inability to continue as a going concern for a reasonable period of time, and include an explanatory paragraph, including an appropriate title , in his audit report to reflect his conclusion. If the auditor concludes that substantial doubt does not exist, he should consider the need for disclosure. When financial statements of one or more prior periods are presented on a comparative basis with financial statements of the current period, reporting guidance is provided in section 508.

  • If the accountant expects to include an emphasis-of-matter paragraph in the accountant’s review report, the accountant should communicate with management regarding this expectation and the proposed wording of this paragraph (AR-C 90.55 AR-C 90.55).
  • When a company collapses, all stakeholders are affected, from employees to investors, and it eventually erodes the public’s trust in financial markets.
  • The directors have prepared projected cash flow information for the [twelve months/longer] from the date of approval of these financial statements taking into consideration the estimation of the continued business impacts of COVID-19.
  • Only if the results disclosed in the financial statements differ materially from the results disclosed by management, or if there is a disclosed significant event subsequent to year-end , is an investor likely to be influenced regarding a possible stock purchase—if the investor reads the financial statements at all.
  • FASB’s standards require that management look out for a reasonable period of time, which is 12 months beyond the date when the financial statements are issued.

We also invite relevant parties to explore whether and, if so, how assessing companies’ longer-term viability and resilience, and interconnecting of financial and non-financial information could contribute to this aim. Staff analysis will take into account observations from the Board’s oversight activities, audit firms’ methodologies, academic research, recent reporting trends, the activities of other standard setters and regulators, and information from investors and other stakeholders.

While the act did codify as law the reporting requirements of SAS 59, it also made it more difficult for a plaintiff’s attorneys to successfully pursue class-action litigation against auditors. Furthermore, in cases where auditors did fail to modify their audit opinions in accordance with SAS 59, the damage awards were limited to proportionate liability. When comparing the potential costs of issuing a going-concern opinion (hastening the demise of the client; losing audit fees) to the costs of not issuing a going-concern opinion , the result of the act was essentially to tip the scales in favor of not issuing a going-concern opinion. Since the act was passed, high-profile litigation citing the auditors’ failure to issue a going-concern opinion, such as the class-action lawsuits by Kmart’s shareholders against PricewaterhouseCoopers, and Adelphia’s against Deloitte & Touche, has been drastically reduced. The relevance of audited financial statements beyond the date they are issued is now often diminished. Courts should thus exercise some skepticism about allegations that such transactions would not have occurred if only the auditors had included a going concern disclosure in their opinion or insisted on such a disclosure in the notes. This is particularly true in cases where the plaintiffs are institutional investors who have the capacity to analyze financial data concerning large public companies on a continual basis.

Auditor reporting and transparency about the entity’s financial condition is information critical to our turbulent economy. Amid the economic turmoil related to the coronavirus pandemic, going concern is one of the topics that auditors are most frequently asking about in their contacts with the AICPA. The information in this article does not address audits performed in accordance with PCAOB standards. If for example, a company expects to miss a debt service payment in the coming year, then substantial doubt exists. This initial assessment is made without regard to management’s plans to alleviate going concern conditions. The conditions or events that led him or her to believe that there is substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern for a reasonable period of time.